The risk of suicidal behavior can be precipitated by a number of factors one of which is mental disorders. Lots of researches have been done to analyze the relationship between mental illness and suicide. Most of these studies have reviewed positive correlations between the two variables hence the need to look at some of these mental disorders and how they enhance the risk of developing suicidal thoughts.
Suicide and Depression
According to the World Health Organization, there are currently over 121 million people who are suffering from various levels of depression. Research projections indicate that depression will take over as the second most cause of disability after cardiac illnesses by the year 2020. Compared to men, women are highly likely to be diagnosed with depression. Given the high prevalence of suicide cases and the high rates of depression among those who commit suicide, it becomes imperative for those who suffer depression to seek comprehensive treatment that addresses both suicidality and depression.
Suicide and Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder is a mental illness which is second in ranking to unipolar depression as one of the major causes of worldwide disability. Men and women are affected equally and the suicide risks in bipolar disorder patients are 15 times that of the general public. Work, family, study, and emotional pressures are among the greatest contributors to suicide in bipolar disorder patients. However, the good news is, these patients can be treated and return to normal functioning.
Suicide and Schizophrenia
Over 24 million people globally are suffering from schizophrenia with the ratios between men and women being equal. People with schizophrenia have a 4 to 10% risk of committing suicide and a 40% risk of suicide attempts. According to a World Health Organization study, schizophrenia was found to be the most common cause of death. In order to prevent suicidal cases among schizophrenics, there needs to be dedicated training not only in risk assessment, but also in management of the problem. Societal support and care is important if this group of people is to recover and assume normal life.
Bulimia Nervosa and Anorexia Nervosa
Of all mental illnesses, eating disorders have been found to have the highest mortality rates. Suicide, deaths, as well as deaths resulting from eating disorder complications have been on the rise in this group of people. Inpatients are the most affected while outpatients still record low suicidal numbers. Bulimic individuals who also have co-morbid alcohol abuse tend to have the highest suicidal attempts rates. Studies have identified that patients who suffer from eating disorders usually have a host of other related problems including depression, anxiety, drug and substance abuse, as well as fearfulness. More intensive research is required as well as clinical best practice guidelines to help address eating disorders.
Suicide and Self-Mutilation
Particularly among young people, self-mutilation has emerged as an area of concern with at least one in a thousand people being vulnerable. Self-mutilation can take many different forms including biting oneself, burning one’s skin or scratching it hard, banging one’s head, pulling and cutting hair, as well as amputation. Inasmuch as self-mutilation and suicide are two different problems, research has pointed out that people with mental illnesses are more likely to undergo self-mutilation. Also, self-mutilation is a precursor to suicidal behavior. Close to 50% of those who kill themselves have a history of self-harm.
Substance Abuse and Suicide
Alcohol has been indicated by international health researchers as the most widely abused substances globally. In 2003, the World Health Organization gave an estimate of about 5 million people who illicitly inject drugs. Young adults were isolated as a susceptible group when it comes to the risk factors associated with substance abuse that lead to suicide. Depression and alcohol abuse are also co-existing factors that lead to suicidal behavior. Depression levels in people who abuse alcohol are high and this makes them to act on impulse.